Xanthan gum is a microbial polysaccharide, also known as xanthan gum or xanthan gum. Xanthan gum is a new type of fermented product recently developed in the world. The English name is Xanthan Gum and the trade names are Kelzan (industrial grade, USA), Keltrol (food grade, USA), Xc-Polymer (for petroleum), etc. Xanthan gum is a kind of biopolymer finally obtained by using starch as the main raw material through microbial fermentation and a series of biochemical processes. Its main components are glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid and so on. The molecular weight reaches millions. It has outstanding high viscosity and water solubility, unique rheological properties, excellent temperature stability and PH stability, and satisfactory compatibility.
Application of xanthan gum
1 Application in cosmetics industry
The most important use of xanthan gum in cosmetics industry is toothpaste. Its excellent shear thinning flow behavior makes toothpaste easy to extrude from the tube and pump and pack. Xanthan gum is an excellent binder for all types of toothpaste. It is easy to hydrate and has excellent enzyme stability. It can produce uniform and stable products and improve the extensibility of products.
It provides excellent stability for skin cream and lotion, xanthan gum. The high viscosity of xanthan gum at rest is beneficial to the stability of evenly dispersed oil phase in personal care products, and the shear thinning property provides good lubrication and skin toning effect. Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, is often used in skin care cosmetics because it can promote collagen synthesis, prevent aging, reduce fine lines and fade melanin. However, in order to transport the active ingredients to a specific location, an appropriate delivery system must be selected. At this time, adding a small amount of xanthan gum in the O / W microemulsion system as a thickener can have a good effect. Xanthan gum can also be used as a sunscreen in skin care products to protect the skin from ultraviolet rays. In addition, xanthan gum can also be used as a thickener in whitening cosmetics under the conditions of low pH value and high electrolyte.
Xanthan gum in eye shadow can make eye shadow have fluid structure, good stability, and more importantly, it can keep eye shadow at 45 degrees Celsius for two months.
Washing shampoo is widely accepted because it is easy to use and easy to spread on the hair. However, when the shampoo contains small-size particles of active ingredients, the suspension and deposition of these particles will bring a variety of problems. At this time, if added a little xanthan gum, it can improve the mobile properties of shampoo, suspend insoluble pigments and medicinal ingredients, produce stable, rich and fine creamy foam, and cooperate with surfactants and other additives in wide range of pH . A patent has reported that xanthan gum can improve the deposition of selenium sulfide in dandruff shampoo , and stabilize the dispersed, insoluble and nonvolatile silicone resin phase in shampoo.
After heat treatment, xanthan gum has more advantages than other fixatives in hair cosmetics, including rheological improvement, outstanding hardness, luster and so on.
The mixed system of surfactants and polymers has potential application value in many aspects. Anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants can be crosslinked with water-soluble polymers in solution, and the crosslinking effect depends largely on the properties of surfactants and polymers. Zwitterionic surfactants have the properties of both anionic and cationic surfactants. Xanthan gum is a water-soluble polymer with excellent physical and chemical properties. Therefore, many scholars regard zwitterionic surfactants and xanthan gum as the research system. For example, Xu Guiying studied the interaction between zwitterionic surfactant betaine and xanthan gum, and found that the existence of xanthan gum is reduced The aggregation number of micelles in betaine micelles may be due to the increase of surfactant ionization in anionic micelles due to the presence of xanthan gum. Such a mixed system not only has the properties of anionic and cationic surfactants, but also has low toxicity, mild to skin and eyes, good water solubility, good resistance to hard water, and easy biodegradation. Therefore, it is commonly used in liquid detergent, shampoo, bath liquid, tableware detergent, vegetable and fruit detergent, antistatic agent and other products.
The stability and viscosity of xanthan gum to strong acid and strong base can also be used to make industrial acidic and alkaline cleaning solution. For example, the European patent’s clean bathtub and other acidic microemulsion complexes for rigid surfaces contain anionic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants and other additives as well as xanthan gum. The mixture of xanthan gum and locust bean gum can also be used as deodorant.
Application of xanthan gum in food industry
Xanthan gum is widely used in various foods because of its excellent emulsification stability, temperature stability, compatibility with other components in food and rheological properties.
Xanthan gum can improve the water holding capacity and taste smoothness of baked food during baking and storage period; it can effectively prolong the suspension time of pulp beverage and improve the taste of fruit and chocolate beverage; it can stabilize frozen food by combining with free water and control the growth rate of ice crystal to provide ideal texture. Adding xanthan gum to canned food can make the material easy to pump and fill, and keep the appearance of the product. Xanthan gum used in dairy production can improve the stability of milk, ice cream and beverage, and improve the shape retention of cream. It can be used in seasonings and sauces. Because of its good stability to acid and alkali, it can be used in oil in water emulsion to extend the shelf life of products. In addition, xanthan gum can also be used in low-fat food, health food and meat products. The mixture of sophora bean gum and sophora bean gum can also be used to make candy, jam and jelly.
Application of xanthan gum in petroleum industry
The main oilfield chemicals in China are polyacrylamide, CMC and modified starch, which result in high drilling cost and low oil production rate. Xanthan gum is much better than other polymers in viscosity, thickening, salt resistance and pollution resistance, especially in drilling mud treatment, completion fluid and tertiary oil recovery in ocean, beach, high brine layer and permafrost, When xanthan gum is mixed with black locust bean gum with degree of phosphorylation in the range of 0.03-0.5, the better effect can be obtained.
Application of xanthan gum in textile industry
Xanthan gum is used in printing and dyeing industry. It can be used as a suspending agent for dyes and pigments, a printing and dyeing control agent. It can control the rheological properties of printing and dyeing slurry, prevent the migration of dyes, and make the pattern clear. It can dissolve with most of the components in the slurry. Its washing out characteristics are also very effective. Therefore, xanthan gum is widely used in carpet, silk and other printing and dyeing industries.
Application of xanthan gum in ceramic and enamel industry
The rheological properties of xanthan gum at low concentration can make the insoluble components in the glaze suspend for a long time and dissolve with the glaze components, which can prevent the agglomeration of the comminuted glaze components and shorten the grinding time. At the same time, it can also control the drying time, reduce the furnace temperature, and correspondingly reduce the spots and other defects, greatly improve the ceramic processing technology and product quality.
Application of xanthan gum in other fields
Xanthan gum can be used as emulsifying stabilizer for emulsion and suspension in pharmaceutical industry, so that the agent is uniform. In agriculture, xanthan gum is used as stabilizer and suspending agent of pesticide emulsion. When spraying, it can control the size of micro droplets and prevent drifting, so that the drug adheres well to the leaf surface of plants, prolongs the contact time between drugs and crops, and protects against rain. Its consistency can be increased when it is used in slurry explosive, and its thermal stability can be improved when it is used together with guar gum. According to statistics, 30% of xanthan gum produced in the United States every year is used in the food industry and 70% in other industries.